(For maps relating to the fighting please click HERE)
When the Great War started Persia was a
weakly-governed country because effective power lay in the hands of regional
administrators and their war-lord allies.
The Persian Army provided colour on ceremonial occasions but did not
fare well when fighting the many bandits and war-lords within the country. The Persian Gendarmerie, the equivalent of an
armed national police force that also collected revenue, was controlled by
Swedish officers on contract appointments, and many of these Swedes supported
Germany and Kaiser Wilhelm’s ambitions.
Dotted around Persia in strategic locations were German political and
intelligence agents who generally operated under the guise of businessmen. Once hostilities between the Great Powers
commenced these German agents used gold, weapons and ammunition to create
alliances with Persian tribes who were prepared to attack British interests.
By agreement with the Persian government in
Tehran Britain maintained a string of posts along the telegraph line that
followed the Persian Gulf northern coastline; these posts were garrisoned by
detachments from units of the Indian Army.
British ambitions were to preserve the integrity of Persia as an
independent but compliant state whilst using it as a buffer to protect India. German long-term ambitions were to use Persia
as a neutral route to Aghanistan from where, hopefully, India could be
de-stabilised by Ghadarite Indian revolutionaries. Once Turkey became a German ally Jihad, or
Holy War, was declared from Constantinople and the Germans used Turkish
religious and social influence to inflame susceptible Persians against the
British presence in their Muslim country.
The hope was that Persia would ally itself with the Central Powers.
Above: Mainland scenery near Bushire
But there was one other powerful nation in
the region who wished Persia to remain neutral, and also to be compliant –
Britain’s ally Imperial Russia who was Persia’s northern neighbour. In 1907 Britain had signed an agreement with
Russia termed the Anglo-Russian Convention.
This agreement partitioned Persia into two spheres of influence and a
neutral sphere. The British sphere of
influence lay in the south-east (see map of Persia), the Russian sphere was the
northern half of Persia, and the neutral sphere stretched across the
country. Whilst both Britain and Russia
argued that their Convention was designed to strengthen the integrity and
independence of Persia, the Persians saw Russia’s move as being a prelude to
partition. Britain’s apparent aim was to
secure India from Russian territorial advances, as had occurred in Central
Asia, but whatever the real British reason, the Convention was deeply unpopular
amongst Persians who thenceforth regarded Britain with suspicion or enmity.
Once the Great War started Persian
territory in the Russian sphere of influence was invaded by the Turks, and then
fought over by Russian and Turkish armies.
In July 1915, after considerable political activity, Britain and Russia
intervened militarily in eastern Persia including in the neutral sphere, by
creating the East Persia Cordon. Indian
Army troops entered south-eastern Persia whilst Russian troops entered from
across their border east of the Caspian Sea.
The two allied forces linked up and attempted to prevent infiltration by
the Central Powers through Persia into Afghanistan.
Left: Wilhelm Wassmuss
Bushire was a Persian island on the north
Gulf coast, but unless there were abnormally high tides it could always be
accessed by an expanse of sand called the Mashileh that acted as a causeway to
the mainland. As Bushire was the
principal Persian port a British political Residency and a telegraph station
were located there, along with a garrison consisting of a double-company from
an Indian infantry regiment. The tribal
area of Tangistan was located south-east of Bushire and the Tangistanis were a
ferocious and predatory people.
Inflaming these tribesmen against the British was Doctor Listermann, the
German consul in Bushire who had received instructions from his Legation in
Tehran to cut the British telegraph cable.
Listermann incited Rais Ali, the tribal Chief of Dilwar, 40 kilometres
south of Bushire and also on the coast, to attack the British Residency. Rais Ali had an axe to grind as the Royal
Navy had destroyed many of Dilwar’s fishing and cargo vessels in 1913 during a
dispute over piracy.
The British, being aware of Listerman’s
activities because of information supplied by friendly Khans or tribal chiefs,
sent warships to Bushire and Dilwar, and prepared to land troops bound for
Basra in Mesopotamia at Bushire.
Parallel political activity persuaded the local Persian Governor that
the German Consul’s activities were un-neutral, and the Tehran government was
informed that Britain would arrest any other European who provoked anti-British
activities. These measures led to a
lessening of tension. However in May
1915 the Persian Governor of Bushire, aware of a village chieftain’s plot to
attack the British residency and needing support because his own gendarmes were
defecting, asked for British help. In
the resulting action on 7th May about 200 rifles of the 96th
Berar Infantry under Major C.E.H. Wintle engaged and defeated the insurgents in
their village, killing, wounding or capturing 28 of them at a cost of three
sepoy casualties. The Bushire garrison
was then increased to half-battalion size.
Then a German equivalent of Lawrence of
Arabia appeared, he was Wilhelm Wassmuss, a former Bushire Consul who had spent
three months during 1913 in Shiraz, the important city north-east of Bushire. Wassmuss’ activities in Persia were to occupy
many British troops for the remainder of the Great War. Wassmuss had been tasked by Berlin with
crossing Persia and entering Afghanistan, along with two German companions,
Niedermayer and Hentig. The latter two
reached Kabul in September 1915, but Wassmuss was apprehended by tribes on the
British pay-roll. He escaped and made
his way down to Shiraz where he spread the word that Kaiser Wilhelm had
converted to Islam and had visited Mecca.
Many in Shiraz, especially the Gendarmerie and its Swedish officers
there, warmed to Wassmuss’ inflammatory speeches against the British presence
action at Bushire 12th – 13th July 1915
In 1915 Ramadhan, the Muslim month of
day-time fasting, was expected to commence on 15th July. Wassmuss urged the Dilwar Tangistanis to
attack Bushire and kill all the British there before Ramadhan started, and some
of them obliged him. A two-pronged
insurgent attack was planned from the south and from the east. On 12th July a report reached
Major H.E. Oliphant, 96th Berar Infantry and commander of the
British outposts, that enemy tribesmen had been observed in nullas (dry
water-courses) three kilometres south of the outpost line.
Oliphant was not inclined to believe the
report but he rode out on reconnaissance with the Assistant Political Officer,
Captain G.J.L. Ranking, Indian Political Department; accompanying the two
officers were five mounted sowars of the Residency escort and 27 rifles of the
96th Berar Infantry.
Unfortunately Oliphant’s mounted party rode too far ahead of its
supporting riflemen and was surprised by the insurgents; Oliphant and Ranking
were killed and three sowars were killed or wounded. Oliphant died in a gallant
attempt to save Ranking. As dusk fell
that evening the insurgents attacked the outposts but were repulsed. Another attack early next day was also
defeated and the Tangistanis then disappeared.
The enemy plan had miscarried because the southern group had been
observed before the eastern group had concentrated to attack. Major Edward Havelock Oliphant was later
posthumously Mentioned in Despatches.
Above: 96th Berar Infantry in 1912
British attack on Dilwar, 13th–15th August 1915
Britain complained to Persia about the
attack on Bushire and demanded reparations; until these were paid Britain
determined to occupy Bushire and to attack Dilwar to punish the
insurgents. Naval craft, a squadron from
the 16th Cavalry and the entire 11th Rajputs were sent to
Bushire, along with two captured Turkish guns, only one of which was later found
to be serviceable. Meanwhile the Germans
in Bushire were believed to have slipped away to Shiraz; soon afterwards the
Khans astride the Shiraz road blocked it and cut the telegraph wires running
On 10th August 1915 a British
expedition left Bushire to carry out punitive measures against Dilwar. The ships involved were:
Juno (Captain D. St. A. Wake) – 11 x 6-inch, 8
x 12-pounder and 1 x 3-pounder guns. ·
Pyramus – 8 x 4-inch and 8 x 3-pounder guns. ·
Lawrence – 4 x 4-inch and 4 x 6-pounder guns. ·
HMIMS Dalhousie – 6
x 6-pounder guns.
The designated landing party, under
Commander Viscount Kelburn, Royal Navy (HMSPyramus), consisted of:
Captain G. Carpenter,
Royal Marine Light Infantry (RMLI), with 50 NCOs and marines and from HMS Juno. ·
9 marines from HMS Pyramus. ·
11 Petty Officers and seamen
from HMS Juno manning machine guns. ·
A demolition party of 1
Warrant Officer and 20 men from HMS Juno. ·
4 signallers from HMS Juno. ·
1 Medical Officer and 10
stretcher bearers from HMS Juno. ·
24 Seedie Boys (locally
enlisted stokers) acting as ammunition and machine gun carriers. ·
Major Wintle with one British
officer and 280 sepoys of the 96th Berar Infantry. ·
5 machine guns.
Because of unfavourable weather landings
could not commence until 11th August, and then conditions were still
difficult. An inshore current took the
boats 1,600 metres away from the planned landing site, and the steamboats had
to slip the tow-ropes 350 metres from the beach. Whilst the boats were being hauled ashore the
Tangistanis fired their rifles from trenches, Juno’s pinnace losing four men killed and seven wounded. HMS
Juno bombarded the foreshore at a range of about 7,250 metres with her
6-inch guns, but the fire had little effect on the enemy.
However once marines landed the tribesmen hastily
withdrew about two kilometres inland. A
base was established and entrenched near the beach, reconnaissance patrols went
out, and stores and the balance of the landing party were brought ashore. Major Wintle took command. This was an extremely difficult time of the
year for infantry operations because of the severely hot climatic conditions.
The village to be destroyed was New Dilwar
and its large fort, but it was not marked on the British maps. Major Wintle decided to advance 2,000 metres to
a palm grove known to be occupied by the Tangistanis that lay in front of the
village of Old Dilwar; from the grove he hoped to be able to sight New Dilwar. The British silent advance began at 0330
hours on 14th August, led by the marines and a company of sepoys
without any machine guns. The palm grove
was rushed quietly without use of covering fire and its inhabitants sprinted
away into the darkness. As day broke New
Dilwar could be observed 1,300 metres away to the north-east across a plain;
the fort had walls 10 metres high with a large tower above the gateway, and a
strong garrison was present. The enemy
strength was estimated at up to 400 riflemen, and the Tangistanis opened fire
on the British and moved forward into Old Dilwar.
Major Wintle did not wish to make a
potentially costly day-time assault so he kept his men occupied in the palm
grove by entrenching a position and in cutting down the palm trees as part of
the punitive measures. Also he requested
HMSJuno to shell Old Dilwar.
Due to an error a salvo of lyddite shells landed in the palm grove,
wounding some men and confusing and demoralising others. As he could not halt the shelling quickly
Wintle ordered an immediate withdrawal to the base camp. The Tangistanis saw an opportunity and attacked
the retreating British, causing a number of casualties before base camp was
reached. During the rapid and energetic withdrawal
several of Wintle’s men became heat-stroke casualties, some of them failing to
recover. The remainder of that day was spent
on reconnaissance and on effective direction of naval fire against Old and New
Having re-grouped and issued orders for a
plan of attack Wintle led his men back towards New Dilwar at 0330 hours on 15th
August. Marching on a compass bearing
Old Dilwar was reached without opposition and a company of sepoys stayed there
to secure the further advance of the assault group. As the attackers moved through the half-light
of dawn towards the fort a British revolver was fired by accident. Wintle ordered the demolition party to run
forward and breach the wall, which it successfully did, allowing the fort to be
immediately rushed and occupied. Most of
the fort garrison was in the partly-demolished palm grove to the south as the
Tangistanis had expected the British to occupy that location again. Hearing the explosion from the fort the
tribesmen advanced on New Dilwar but many of them were cut down in the open
ground where the machine gunners could see them. It was obvious that the enemy had received
reinforcements from other villages as around 200 more tribesmen were present.
Once in the fort the British destroyed it
and New Dilwar. Wintle then commanded a
fighting withdrawal back through the sepoy company at Old Dilwar and then all
the way back to the beach. Naval guns
and the machine guns covered this withdrawal which was completed with the loss
of only six men wounded. Re-embarkation
back on to the ships was completed that night and the expedition returned to
Bushire. The landing party and their
boat crews had taken 55 casualties from fighting, most of these occurring
during and after the erroneous shelling of the palm grove, and 11 casualties
from heatstroke. The Tangistanis were
believed to have lost a considerable number of men.
Gallantry awards for the Dilwar Expedition
Distinguished Service Order:
Commander Patrick James Boyle, Viscount
Kelburn, Royal Navy.
Captain Shirley East Apthorp, 96th Berar
Infantry, Indian Army.
For conspicuous gallantry. During a retirement, when it was found that
two wounded men had been left behind, he immediately volunteered with a private
to return some 300 yards to their rescue in face of a heavy fire from the
advancing enemy. A serjeant and private were guarding the wounded men, and
between them all they brought them back into safety.
Distinguished Service Cross:
Captain George Carpenter, Royal Marine
Light Infantry; Lieutenant Edward Albert Singeisen, Royal Naval Reserve; Acting
Boatswain Thomas Tierney, Royal Navy.
The citation for these three men read: For services during landing
operations in the Persian Gulf in August, 1915.
Distinguished Service Medal:
Royal Marine Light Infantry Privates
Frederick William Rayner (Plymouth 11072); Arthur Ramsey (Chatham 19271); and
G. Yates (Plymouth) received the Distinguished Service Medal for their services
in the operations in the Gulf, and it is likely that these awards were earned
Indian Order of Merit (2nd
Class): Citations are not available but they
doubtless relate to Captain Apthorp’s DSO incident above.
Subadar Dharam Singh (posthumous as he died
of wounds) and Sepoy 1356 Surjan, both of the 96th Berar Infantry;
and Dooly Bearer 6694 Hussain Khan, No 6 Army Bearer Corps.
Mention in Despatches:
Captain S.E. Apthorn DSO, Major C.E.H.
Wintle, Subadar Dharam Singh and No 1336 Sepoy Surjan, all of the 96th
Berar Infantry; No 6694 Dooly Bearer Hussain Khan, No 6 Army Bearer Corps.
Above: Old mud-brick fort Bushire
Tangistani attack on Bushire on 9th September 1915
During July and August tribesmen regularly
infiltrated through the British outposts around Bushire and mounted four
serious raids, causing eleven casualties.
The Tangistanis killed or captured around 40 horses and mules and only
suffered minor casualties themselves.
The British troops had become passive and defensively-minded. On 20th August an attempt by 300
sepoys to close with an enemy force of up to 100 raiders failed due to
inadequate tactical direction, and 13 sepoys became casualties. However the squadron of 16th Cavalry had more
success in closing with the Tangistanis and inflicting casualties on them.
The Indian Distinguished Service Medal
was awarded for gallantry displayed on 20th August 1915 to:
No 1724 Acting Lance Daffadar Kirpa Singh
and No 2003 Sowar Atma Singh, both of the 16th Cavalry.
On that day Brigadier General H.T. Brooking
CB arrived at Bushire from Mesopotamia, having been sent by the theatre
commander General Sir J.E. Nixon. Brooking
took over command in Bushire and brought with him his 33 Brigade staff officers,
50 men of the 2/7th Gurkhas to specialise in ambushing enemy raiding
parties, two more Turkish guns and two field searchlights. He also had authority to call on the warships
for a landing party if required.
Right: Old Bushire
General Brooking reorganised the defence,
having searchlights sweep the approaches by night where the Gurkhas laid
ambushes; also an outpost reserve of two rifle companies with four guns and
four machine guns was established at Imamzadeh.
Machine gun parties from HMS Juno
and Pyramus stood by to assist, and Juno’s guns were practised onto laying
onto any part of Bushire Island. The
navy patrolled the creeks and shallow water east of Bushire town.
Captain R.S. Rothwell, Royal
Artillery, had arrived in Bushire on the 3rd of July along with one
Havildar one Naik and two gunners who were trained gun-layers, from 23rd
(Peshawar) Mountain Battery; this battery was located near Basra in
Mesopotamia. The 16th Rajputs
and the 96th Berar Infantry each supplied two gun teams that were
trained by Rothwell and his men. The
gunners received a total of four captured Turkish guns from Basra; two were
field guns firing shrapnel and two were 7-pounder light guns firing a
segment-shell. The powder charges for
the field guns generated great heat on ignition, and part of the improvised gun
equipment consisted of heavy pieces of hard wood with which the breech-blocks
had to be beaten open after firing.
Rothwell got all the guns into action and through trial and error taught
the infantry gunners how to adjust the fuzes that were marked in Turkish
numerals, and how to operate with improvised range tables that compensated for
the gun sights being marked in metres. Mobility
was added by Indian pattern Army Transport carts each drawn by a pair of mules;
the carts acted as limbers with the guns being attached in rear. The only real drawbacks were that because of
the breech-block problem the field guns could only fire one round each every
two minutes, whilst the segment-shells were ineffective on the soft Mashileh
sand. Nevertheless the four gun teams,
nicknamed the ‘Royal Bushire Artillery’, were soon to prove their worth in
On 3rd September Tangistanis
attacked the Bushire outposts but were driven back; amongst the enemy dead was
Rais Ali, the hostile Khan of Dilwar. Five
days later Captain Carpenter RMLI was ashore at Bushire with a party for
machine gun training; he had with him 35 officers and men from HMS Pyramus plus the Royal Marine
detachment from that ship – one sergeant, one corporal and seven privates. Carpenter’s party had three machine guns with
it, and their presence was fortuitous.
The 9th August was an extremely
hot day at Bushire. General Brooking was
out and about at 0630 hours – the most pleasant part of the day – when a patrol
near Imamzadeh reported observing about 20 of the enemy in the low broken
ground that lay on the edge of the Mashileh south of Zangina. There were several palm groves and water
holes here and a sizeable enemy force had gathered to attack Bushire; the
firing had already started as the south-eastern British outposts, manned by the
Rajputs, engaged the Tangistanis.
Brooking immediately issued orders to deploy troops to defensive tasks
including fire missions for the guns, and he also prepared a
counter-attack. The Gurkhas, who had
been out all night on ambush duties, were initially held in reserve.
Carpenter’s naval party was ordered to move
to Zangina to occupy a position where the machine guns could fire down the
cliffs onto tribesmen attacking across the Mashileh. On reaching the position it could be seen
that the situation was serious and the Rajputs were hard-pressed to hold their
outposts. Carpenter deployed his three
machine guns under heavy fire coming from tribesmen only 300 metres distant,
but his right hand gun had no hard cover to fire from. Lieutenant Commander T.S.L. Dorman and Yeoman
of Signals F.S. Wood volunteered to man the exposed gun but Wood was soon
mortally wounded and Dorman was ordered to fall back; the gun was left in
position as its approaches were covered by one of the other guns that was
mounted in a tower. For the next two
hours the two functioning naval machine guns held a gap in the defences that
the enemy tried to infiltrate through.
On the left a small detachment under Sergeant J. Wall engaged attackers
at 200 metres range and prevented enemy movement on that flank. Sergeant John Wall, RMLI (Plymouth) later
received a Distinguished Service Medal; Lieutenant Commander Thomas
Stephen Lewis Dorman, Royal Navy, later received a Distinguished Service
Order with the citation: For his gallant conduct at Reshire on the 9th September,
1915, when he volunteered and endeavoured to bring a machine-gun into action,
exposed to a heavy fire from the enemy, at about 300 yards range. A Yeoman of Signals who accompanied
Lieutenant Commander Dorman was mortally wounded.
Meanwhile the four machine guns of the 11th
Rajputs were also heavily engaged, two of them also at Zangina and the other
two south of Outpost 4 (Point B on the Bushire map) where the enemy were
attacking from the palm groves on the Mashileh. Lieutenant Edmund Cyril
Staples, 11th Rajputs, was later awarded a Military Cross: He was in command of
Brigade machine guns, and, although wounded himself and with only one wounded
man to help him, he continued to work one of the guns at close range and under
heavy fire for about an hour until the action closed. At the end he was working
the gun alone as the man helping him was a second time wounded.
1829 Sepoy Ram Kishor Singh, 11th
Rajputs, received the Indian Order of Merit (2nd Class):For very conspicuous gallantry and
coolness at Bushire on the 9th September 1915, when although wounded
and the only man left, he nobly assisted Lieutenant Staples in working one of
the machine guns under heavy fire. He
was twice wounded.
Left: 96th Berar Infantry badge
General Brooking ordered a counter-attack
to commence at around 1030 hours.
Lieutenant Colonel H.P. Lane steadily attacked with his 96th
Berar Infantry from Point B causing the enemy to break and run back across the
Mashileh; about 600 tribesmen could be counted.
For his performance during this fighting 2331 Sepoy Mehar Singh, 96th
Berar Infantry, received the Indian Order of Merit (2nd Class):
conspicuous gallantry and coolness at Bushire on the 9th September
1915, in continuing to fight after being twice wounded. He afterwards received three more wounds and
only then did he fall out.
Then Major William Herbert Pennington, 12th
Cavalry, commanding the squadron of 16th Cavalry and positioned on
the Mashileh east of Point B, was ordered to close in on the enemy. The squadron advanced on foot through a
mirage-like heat haze until the enemy was suddenly seen at close range, and
fire was opened. Immediately the order
to mount and charge was given and the squadron charged straight into the mass
of the withdrawing enemy. Very savage
fighting followed in which the squadron lost a third of its strength, Major
Pennington, 2nd Lieutenant Leslie Irvine Lumsden Thornton, Indian
Army Reserve of Officers, two Indian officers and 11 rank and file being killed
or dying of wounds whilst 10 rank and file were wounded.
The two Indian officer fatalities both
received a posthumous Indian Order of Merit (2nd Class), the citation
for Jemadar Gopal Singh, 16th Cavalry, read: For very conspicuous gallantry and coolness in action at
Bushire on the 9th September 1915, in courageously supporting the
lead of his superior officers into the midst of the enemy where he was
killed. This charge thoroughly
disorganised the enemy.
The citation for Risaldar Prem Singh, 16th
Cavalry, read: For very conspicuous gallantry and coolness in action at
Bushire on the 9th September 1915, in courageously leading his troop
into the middle of some 400 of the enemy where he was killed. He also set a gallant example under heavy
fire at Barjisiyah, (Mesopotamia) on the 14th April 1915.
Two of the rank and file of the squadron,
both being men of the 27th Light Cavalry attached to the 16th
Cavalry, later received the Indian Distinguished Service Medal for
gallantry displayed during this action: No 1016 Acting Lance Daffadar Ram Lal
and No 1612 Sowar Khazan Singh.
Three men of the 39th Mule Corps,
No 799 Driver Johdia, No 589 Naik (Acting Kot Dafadur) Din Muhammad and No 498
Kot Dafadar Ahmad Khan, also received the Indian Meritorious Service Medal
for the manner in which they performed their duties during the Bushire fighting
on 9th September 1915. Their
work doubtless involved bringing mule-loads of ammunition and water forward
into outposts subject to heavy fire from nearby enemy groups. Lance Naik 4293 Rati Ram, 96th
Berar Infantry, also received this medal.
Right: Bushire dhow port
After the charge by the cavalry into the
ranks of the enemy the squadron needed time to reorganise its troops and
evacuate casualties. This gave the
Tangistanis a breathing space to break contact with the pursuing infantry
although the British guns continued to inflict casualties. Soon the fleet-footed tribesmen were across
the Mashileh and hidden in the broken ground on the mainland; they had left 43
dead, 14 wounded and 4 unwounded prisoners behind on the sand, but they were
believed to have taken many wounded men with them. Besides the 25 British cavalry casualties
there were 5 in the naval detachment, 34 in the 11th Rajputs and 22
in the 96th Berar Infantry, 2nd Lieutenant R.W. Robinson
of the latter regiment dying of wounds. However
the Tangistanis had been defeated without having captured one British outpost,
and brave men though they were, they did not mount further attacks on Bushire. On 13th September General
Brooking, his task of defending Bushire successfully completed, left for
Mesopotamia and handed over to Colonel S.M. Edwardes DSO, Indian Army.
in Despatches for the defence of Bushire on 9th September 1915.
Major W.H. Pennington, 12th Cavalry attached 16th
Cavalry; 2nd Lieutenant L.I.L. Thornton, Indian Army Reserve of
Officers attached to 16th Cavalry; Rissaldar Prem Singh and Jemadar
23rd Mountain Battery:
Major R.S. Rothwell, Royal Artillery.
96th Berar Infantry:
Lieutenant Colonel H.P. Lane; Captain L.D. Rollo; No 2331 Sepoy Mehar Singh; No
2762 Sepoy Nadir; No 2766 Sepoy Maula Baksh.
Temporary Major General H.T. Brooking CB; Captain G.H. Plinston, 11th
Rajputs; Lieutenant H.P. Radley, 72nd Punjabis attached 33rd
(Divisional Signal) Company; Captain W.E. Wilson-Johnston, 36th
Sikhs; No 8119 Rifleman H. Ball, 3rd Bn The King’s Royal Rifle
The British dead are buried in the Tehran
War Cemetery or named on the Tehran Memorial, Iran or on the Basra Memorial,
(Grateful acknowledgement is expressed to
Cliff Parrett, a leading researcher of Indian Army gallantry awards and the
editor of Durbar, the Journal of the
Indian Military Historical Society [http://imhs.org.uk/],
for the research he provided for this article, as three awards previously
overlooked by the major compilers can now be recognised, and others can be
assigned to the correct theatre.)
(the most easily accessible are listed)
Brigadier General F.J.
Moberly, Official History. Operations in
Persia 1914-1919, Imperial War Museum 1987. ·
General Sir John Nixon
KCB, Despatch dated 15th
January 1916, London Gazette No 29685, page 7456, 27 July 1916. ·
General Sir H.E. Blumberg
KCB, Britain’s Sea Soldiers. A record of
the Royal Marines during the War, Naval & Military Press. ·
Lieutenant Colonel J. de
L. Conry, compiler: Regimental History of
the 2/19th Hyderabad Regiment (Berar), Gale & Polden 1927. ·
Conrad Cato, The Navy Everywhere, Chapter XIII, http://archive.org/details/navyeverywhere00cato
Rana Chhina, The Indian Distinguished Service Medal, InvictaIndia
Peter Duckers, Reward of Valour. The Indian Order of Merit,
1914-1918, Jade Publishing, Oldham 1999. ·
M.S. Leigh OBE ICS, The Punjab and the War, Sang-E-Meel,
Lahore 1997. ·
and Awards, Indian Army 1914-1921, J.B.
Hayward & Son (reprint of Roll of
Honour, Indian Army 1914-1921, 1931). ·
Antony Wynn, Persia in the Great Game, John Murray
Sean McMeekin, The Berlin-Baghdad Express, Penguin
Paperback 2011. ·
Commonwealth War Graves
Commission records and British National Archives Medal Index Cards.